Copyright © Panorama Group 1991 - 2021
Complex of 3D analysis
Complex of 3D analysis is intended for creation of surfaces models and the tasks solution of the spatial analysis, with using the constructed models. Complex of 3D analysis includes more than 50 tasks.
Some tasks of general purpose are also included into structure of product the Professional GIS "Panorama 11", for example creation of matrixes of heights and matrixes of qualities, a choice of values for absolute height, profiling of elevations matrixes, summation and cutting of matrixes.
Specialized tasks of the analysis of a relief, modeling of derivative surfaces, creations of vector characteristics, problems of forecasting and an assessment of accuracy are included only into structure for complex of 3D analysis.
The model of a surface can display various properties of terrain, such as elevations of relief, concentration of pollution, an amount of precipitation, a radiation level and others.
Models of surfaces can be created according to vector data of the SHP, MIF, DXF, SXF, KML formats and others, according to information from database (DBF, XLS) tables, and also can be loaded from the formats SRTM, GeoTIFF, XYZ, LAS and other, in total more than 20 formats.
Models of surfaces are used for formation of the three-dimensional map of the district, and also at the task solution of assessment of a relief: calculation of distances, calculation of the areas and volumes, profiling, creation of visibility ranges, definition of slopes directions.
Complex of 3D analysis uses models of surfaces in tasks of isolines creation, formations of H coordinate (height) of map objects, at creation of flooding zones and for modeling of emergencies. Complex of 3D analysis also includes tasks of forecasting oil spill emergency zone and calculation of bulks for earthwork.
Composition of the main panel of this complex:
Creating the matrixes
|Creating the matrix of elevation on the map|
|Creating the matrix of qualities|
|Matrix creating by the contour stages method|
|Creating of layers matrix|
|Creating TIN model with using map|
|Creating the contour of common border for the matrix frame|
|Import and export|
|Loading matrixes of elevation from SRTM or GeoTIFF formats|
|Loading matrixes of elevation from GRD or ASCII formats|
|Loading matrixes from TXT format|
|Loading matrixes from DBF format|
|Loading MTD model from TXT format|
|Loading MTD model from LAS format|
|Export the matrix of elevation into TXT|
|Export the matrix of qualities into TXT|
|Export the matrix of elevation into TXT into TIFF|
Length, square, volume
|Choice of value for absolute height|
|Choice of value for quality or layer capacity|
|Calculation of the object length on a relief|
|Calculation of the object area on a relief|
|Volume calculation on the matrix of heights or the matrix of layers|
|Profile of the elevation matrix by the line|
|Profile of the elevation matrix by the object|
|Profile of the elevation matrix by the area of the object|
|Profile of the elevation matrix by the short line with accounting of relative heights for the objects|
|Profile of quality matrix on line|
|Profile of layers matrix on line|
|Profile of layers matrix on object|
|Profile of layers matrix by the area of the object|
|Profile of the dynamic matrix of layers|
|The schedule of matrix capacity|
|Zones and statistics|
|The visibility range (zone)|
|The visibility range (from a keyboard)|
|The matrix of slopes|
|Raster of the relief hill-shade|
|The zone of compliance on conditions|
|The zone of compliance on conditions|
|The surface statistics|
|The surface of slopes|
|The surface of remoteness|
|The surface of cost|
|The surface of density|
Control and editing of elevation matrixes
|The comparison of matrixes|
|Equalizing of matrixes|
|Cutting of matrixes|
|Summation of matrixes|
|Assessment of accuracy for matrix on the map objects|
|Assessment of relief|
Transforming of matrixes
|Matrixes uniting with transforming by objects|
Creating of isolines and polygons
|Horizontals creating on the matrix of heights|
|Isolines creating on the matrix of qualities|
|Isolines creating on the dot objects|
|Creating polygons on homogeneous zones of matrixes|
Creating of vectors
|Creating the regular grid of vector characteristics|
|Creating the matrix and vectors map of slopes|
|Forming the coordinate of H (height) for hydrographic objects|
|Calculation of volumes of earthwork|
|Forecasting of the zone for emergency oil spill|
The 3D display
|Display of the three-dimensional map of the district|
|Display of the three-dimensional matrix of heights|
|Display of the three-dimensional matrix of layers|
Three-dimensional raster model of the district. The matrix of elevations has regular structure and contains the elements which values are the elevations of terrain relief. Each element of the matrix contains one value of elevation. The structure of the matrix of elevations is similar to structure of digital model of a relief DEM (Digital Elevation Model). The element of matrix corresponds to a square area of the terrain, part size of which is called as a resolution of a matrix.
The raster terrain model containing values of arbitrary characteristic. Matrixes of qualities and a matrix of elevations have identical structure except that the matrixes of qualities store a palette for displaying. It allows to customize color of displaying each matrix of qualities depending on the modelled characteristic.
Matrixes of qualities and elevations can be created on a vector map with use of various methods of interpolation:
A regular 3D model of geological bodies. Matrix of layers (layers of the Earth's crust) is a regular array of values of the absolute elevations and capacities of layers. Unlike a matrix of elevations, in which element only one value (absolute elevation) is presented, in a matrix of layers the element has a set of values (absolute elevation, capacity of the 1-st layer, capacity of the 2-nd layer, … capacity of N-th layer).
A multi-faceted surface - irregular network of triangles, vertices of which are the original reference points, and also points of metrics of structural lines and the areas of filling. TIN-model makes it possible to use the variable density of the starting points depending on changes of relief, that allows you to create an efficient and accurate model of the surface. In creation of TIN model there are used also and other spatial objects specifying structure of a relief - ridges, watercourse lines, water surface with constant elevation.
Is intended for processing of results of dot measurements - data of air laser scanning, the remote sensing of Earth (RSE) and others. The MTD model is the digital irregular dot model containing spatial coordinates (X, Y, Z) code of a point and other characteristics of points, for example values of intensity of laser reflection.
Models of surfaces are created according to the vector map, according to information from database tables, and also loaded from external formats (SRTM, GeoTIFF, LAS and others).
Models of surfaces are used for formation of a three-dimensional map of the district, and also at the solution of tasks of an assessment of a relief: calculation of distances, calculation of the areas and volumes, profiling, creation of visibility ranges, definition of the directions of slopes. Matrix models allow performance of transformation operations over them (comparison, equalizing, cutting, summation, projection transformation) with receiving derivative surfaces.
Models of surfaces can be used for creation of isolines, formation of H (height) coordinate for objects of the map, at calculation of earthwork volumes, at creation of flooding zones and for modeling of emergencies.
The digital irregular dot model (MTD model) constructed according to air laser scanning allows to create 3D-metrics of specified objects, and also to execute automatic creation of a relief isolines (horizontals).
The models of surfaces, constructed according to the vector map or loaded from external formats, are used at the solution of tasks of the spatial analysis - calculation of distances, the areas and volumes, profiling, creation of visibility ranges, definition of slopes directions.
The matrix of qualities representing a surface of values of the specified modelled characteristic, as well as a matrix of elevations, can be applied for profiling and automatic creation of objects of the vector map – isolines or a grid of vectors.
Models of surfaces are used for the three-dimensional modeling, allowing in the best way to describe the real district, objects of world around and their relative positioning. Volumetric displaying a matrix of elevations is used for receiving representation about the shape of a terrain relief.
The task of building three-dimensional terrain model (three-dimensional map) allows you to work both with all area, displayed in a window of the two-dimensional map, and with any chosen its fragment.
3D complex of analysis also includes tasks of forecasting for a zone of emergency oil spill and calculation of earthwork volumes.